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< prev - next > Livestock Animal husbandry KnO 100033_Tsetse fly management (Printable PDF)
This brief describes community-based tsetse fly control as a drought management strategy in
tsetse fly invaded areas, which are settled by agro-pastoralists1.
Importance of disease control strategies in
drought management
Livestock production is a more dependable livelihood
option for rural communities in arid and semi-arid
areas. Livestock have the ability to withstand effects
of adverse climatic occurrences, especially droughts
and, therefore provide both food and income
security. Nevertheless, disease often constrain
successful livestock production in drought stress.
1 Agro-pastoralists may be described as
settled pastoralists who cultivate sufficient
areas to feed their families from
their own crop production. Agro-pastoralists
hold land rights, use their own or hired
labour to cultivate land and grow staples.
While livestock are still valued property,
their herds are on average smaller than
other pastoral systems, possibly because
they no longer solely rely on livestock and
depend on a finite grazing area around their
village which can be reached within a day.
The animals, which are under nutritional as well as
physical stress (resulting from movement over long distances in search water and pasture),
succumb easily to diseases in times of severe drought. Disease management must be an
integral part of a drought management strategy in order to help vulnerable communities of
pastoralists and agro-pastoralists become more resilient to the frequently recurring drought
shocks. The level and nature of disease management interventions is influenced by local or
rangeland factors such as tsetse flies.
Parasitic diseases that affect livestock are widespread in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in
arid and semi-arid areas. One of the most serious parasitic diseases is trypanosomosis. This
disease, which affects both human beings and livestock is transmitted by tsetse flies and
covers approximately 10 million square kilometres in 38 African countries. This brief focuses
on the control of the trypanosomosis in livestock.
With fewer resources to support livestock production, cost effective and sustainable methods
of disease control must actively involve local communities. One of the methods of tsetse fly
control is use of trapping technology. Although the trapping technology is the one described in
this brief, other technology options of trypanosomosis and tsetse fly control are available.
Methods in trypanosomosis and tsetse fly control
The control targets either the vector (tsetse fly) that transmits the parasite (trypanosomosis)
that causes the disease. The following methods of control are often used.
Use of drugs to cure and/or protect the animal
Selection or breeding of animals that are resistant to trypanosomosis disease
Selective clearing of bushes to destroy hiding and breeding places of tsetse flies
Use of baited traps or treated targets
Application of insecticides through prays, dips, pour-ons and aerial spraying
Use of biological techniques such as Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) or predators
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